It’s usual that all text files on a site share the same character encoding.
Especially UTF-8 is modern de facto standard. However, the default
charset_types does not contain text/css, let alone other non-plain
text types e.g. text/markdown.
I have been researching on Wbridge5, a prominent bridge program. I was
confused that it disables inverted minors by default. Recently I came
up with conclusion.
By default, Wbridge5 opens strong notrump, so inverted minors is
disabled. Wbridge5 includes inverted minors because weak notrump is also
Inverted minors originates from Kaplan–Sheinwold. Inverted minors is
popular in East and Southeast Asia due to popularity of Precision Club,
based on K-S with strong club, inheriting the weak notrump opening.
Nowadays, many ones open strong notrump according to somewhat American.
However, some of them still employ inverted minors. Inverted minors has pros
indeed, easily found by searching “inverted minors”. Hence, I list
its cons as balance.
Garbage 1NT response
Weakness of inverted minors is not on itself but the 1NT response modified
because of inverted minors. The 1NT response may have the following meanings:
At least 6 tricks expected if both minimum.
Only 5 tricks expected if both minimum.
When partner opens 1♠, 1♥, or
1♦, not to miss a probable game, garbage 1NT is
on as the opponent passes.
If inverted minors is agreed, without intervention, garbage 1NT is always on.
If inverted minors is off, a constructive 1NT is ensured over 1♣ opening even
if intervened, as there is always a better call i.e. a suit or
pass. Respond 2♣ with a weak 3-3-3-4 because the opener often has 4+
If 1♣ ensures 3+ clubs
With minimum strength, the probability of only 3 clubs is 21.5%.
If 1♣ can be 4-4-3-2
With minimum strength, the probability of exactly 3 clubs is 20.4%, 4-4-3-2 5.19%.
Weak 4-card support dumped as garbage
Express 5-card support at 3 level preempts, but 1NT with 4-card support is much
less preemptive. Is there so much difference between 2 of a minor and 1NT, as
1NT is just one or two bids lower? Let’s consider the following.
The point is not whether to escape, but the positive pass. Notrump sucks for
the declarer, 6.06 tricks taken on average. 1NTxS−3 is more tragic than 3NTE=
unless favorable vulnerability. In addition, the total notrump tricks may be
less than 13.
If 2♣ were responded, east must have had clubs to pass, positive advances
elevated onto 2NT. Preemption is force opponents bid high with strong hands.
Although 2♣ is only one bid higher than 1NT, pass and cuebid are pushed onto
AppArmor is the default
module on Ubuntu. Unlike
in Un*x, an AppArmor config lists what a process can access. An
enforced process can only access listed paths; a complaining process
emits warning when accessing an unlisted path.
However, there is no default config for nginx and php-fpm.
To prevent the web server being hacked, causing systemic infection, let’s
write configs on our own! The useful tool aa-genprof gets most of the jobs
done, but some paths are still missing, especially sockets. Therefore, I
publish my settings as reference.